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Nutrient Management & Plant Protection
 
UKSS has tried to maintain the soil physical condition by providing manures and fertilizers and also proper utilization for plant protection by insecticide and pesticide. In the soil, plant’s root system is always in close association with multitude of microorganisms and other nutrients. The microbes in root zone are maintained due to a variety of secretions from the roots and constitute what is often described as ‘rhizosphere’.
 
These microbes in their turn supply nutrients to the soil system through their heterotrophic activity and thus supplement nitrogen and phosphorus supplied with the use of chemical and organic fertilizers.
 
Maintenance of these microbes in the rhizosphere, therefore, is also necessary for soil health.
 
Crop productivity and nutrient cycles, however, are integral parts of the exploitation of soil health and have led to soil degradation through nutrient depletion and erosion, so that long term strategies are needed to curtail the use of chemical fertilizers without adversely affecting crop productivity.
 
The use of Biofertilizers, have received increased attention in this connection, leading to increased use of Biofertilizers in our cropping systems. For Nutrient Management following manures utilized:
 
Green manures :
Green manures are crops grown for the express purpose of ploughing them in, thus increasing fertility through the incorporation of nutrients and organic matter into the soil. Leguminous plants such as clover are often used for this, as they "Nitrogen fixing" fixes nitrogen by using Rhizobium bacteria in specialized "Root nodule" in the root structure.
 
Animal manures
FYM also contains plant material (often straw), which has been used as bedding for animals and has absorbed the feces and urine. Agricultural manure in liquid form, known as slurry, is produced by more intensive livestock rearing systems where concrete or slats are used, instead of straw bedding.
 
Farm yard manure
This is the traditional manure and is mostly readily available to the farmers. Farm yard manure is a decomposed mixture of Cattle dung and urine with straw and litter used as bedding material and residues from the fodder fed to the cattle.
 
The waste material of cattle shed consisting of dung and urine soaked in the refuse of the shade is collected daily and placed in trenches about 6-7 m long, 1.5-2 m broad and 1 m deep.
 
Each trench is filled upto a height of about 0.5 m above the ground level. The top of the heap is to be made dome shaped and plastered over with cow dung earth slurry. It becomes ready to apply after 3-4 months. It is possible to prepare by this process 5-6 tonnes or 10-12 cartloads manure per year per head of cattle. Well rotten farmyard manure contains 0.4 to 1.5 percent N, 0.3-0.9 % P2O5 and 0.3-1.9% K2O. Animal and cow dung from biogas are also used in similar manner.
 
Compost
Compost is the decomposed remnants of organic materials – usually of plant origin, but often including some animal dung or bedding.
 
Vermicompost
Vermicompost is an organic manure (bio-fertilizer) produced as the vermicompost by earth worm feeding on biological waste material; plant residues. This compost is an odorless, clean, organic material containing adequate quantities of N, P, K and several micronutrients essential for plant growth. Vermicompost is a preferred nutrient source for organic farming. It is eco-friendly, non-toxic, consumes low energy input for composting and is a recycled biological product.
 
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Methods of Vermicompost
1. Windrows
  Most commercial farm vermicompost involves windrows, which are long rows of cow manure. Farmers typically stack the manure in rows 3 feet high and 3 feet wide, with rows often stretching more than 100 feet long. Farmers seed the windrows with worms, making certain to keep the rows moist. Fresh manure added to the ends of the existing rows draws the worms forward to keep the process moving.
   
2. Troughs
  Cement troughs can also host vermicompost. Usually the troughs hold only manure, which is aged for at least a week before being placed in the trough. This composting method begins with only a few inches of manure spread across the bottom of the trough. Farmers then add the worms, allowing them to feed on the manure for a few days before adding another layer of manure. More manure layers are added every 10 days until the worm compost reaches the top of the trough.
   
3. Pits
  Some farmers opt for vermicompost pits, digging a large hole in which to bury the worms and organic waste material. Of course, before adding the worms and bedding, farmers must line the pit to prevent worms from escaping into the surrounding soil. Canvas feed bags make a good lining, preventing worm passage yet allowing for suitable water drainage. Farmers fill the lined pit with organic materials, such as straw, grass clippings and manure, and then cover it with soil. After about a week, during which time the pit is watered to maintain its moisture, farmers add worms. The worms immediately burrow into the pit, beginning the vermicompost procedure.
   
Nutrient content of vermicompost
Nitrogen- 1.5 – 2.5 % Calcium- 0.5 – 1.0 %
Phosphorus- 0.9 – 1.7 % Magnesium- 0.2 – 0.3 %
Potash- 1.5 – 2.4 % Sulphur- 0.4 - 0.5 %
Other micronutrients with vitamins, enzymes and hormones.
 
Materials for preparation of Vermicompost :
Any types of biodegradable wastes-
1. Crop residues
2. Weed biomass
3. Vegetable waste
4. Leaf litter
5. Hotel refuse
6. Waste from agro-industries
7. Urban and rural wastes as Biodegradable mass
 
Integrated Nutrient Management
It is necessary to utilize optimum & adequate recourses to increase efficiency of fertilizer application.
Excessive and unscientific use of fertilizer is resulting into infertile lands. Sustainable agriculture means production for present generation using present natural recourses without harming natural recourses of future generation. Sustainable agriculture also called as organic farming.
Integrated nutrient management is important in Sustainable agriculture.
 
Types of Fertilizer
Chemical fertilizers
1. Nitrogenous fertilizers
2. Phosphorus fertilizers
3. Potassic fertilizers
4. Compound fertilizers
5. Mix fertilizers
6. Mix fertilizers
7. Complex fertilizer
8. Liquid fertilizers
9. Micro nutrient fertilizers
10. Granules
11. Coated fertilizers
Organic fertilizers
1. Cow dung
2. Compost
3. Biomass compost
4. Green manure
5. Vermicompost
6. Vermiwash
7. Oil cakes
8. Bone meal
9. Fishmeal
10. Blood meal
 
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Chemical fertilizers
Integrated Pest Management (IPM):
IPM is a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, mechanical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks".
 
Aims of IPM
Reduce the use of synthetic organic pesticides
That are environmentally sound
Pose minimal risk of human health
Re-useable return on investment
Provide consumable and safe food
 
Principles of IPM
Identification of key pests and beneficial organisms
Defining the management unit, the Agro-ecosystem
Development of management strategy
Establishment of Economic thresholds (loss & risks)
Development of assessment techniques
Evolving description of predictive pest models
 
Tools of IPM
1. Monitoring
  Keep tracks of the pests and their potential damage. This provides knowledge about the current pests and crop situation and is helpful in selecting the best possible combinations of the pest management methods.
   
2. Pest resistant varieties
  Breeding for pest resistance is a continuous process. These are bred and selected when available in order to protect against key pests.
   
3. Cultural pest control
  It includes crop production practices that make crop environment less susceptible to pests. Crop rotation, cover crop, row and plant spacing, planting and harvesting dates, destruction of old crop debris are a few examples. Cultural controls are based on pest biology and development.
   
4. Mechanical control
  These are based on the knowledge of pest behavior. Hand picking, installation of bird perches, mulching and installation of traps are a few examples.
   
5. Biological control
  These include augmentation and conservation of natural enemies of pests such as insect predators, parasitoids, and pathogen and weed feeders. In IPM programs, native natural enemy populations are conserved and non-native agents are released with utmost caution.
   
6. Chemical control
  Pesticides are used to keep the pest population below economically damaging levels when the pests cannot be controlled by other means. It is applied ONLY when the pest's damaging capacity is nearing to the threshold.
   
Feromen trap: In this methyl ugenol used to attract the insect hence all fruit files attract towards it and trapped in it.
 
Pesticides
Dash Parni Ark:
It is an organic pesticide which is made from ten leaves of different plants these are as follows :
 
About Dashparni ark
Leaves of neem – 5 kg
Leaves of ghaneri (Lantana camera) – 2 kg
Leaves of karanj – 2 kg
Leaves of kanheri – 2 kg
Leaves of jatropha or castor – 2 kg
Leaves of gulvel – 2 kg
Leaves of Custard apple – 2 kg
Green chilli pods – 2 kg
Garlic cloves – 2 kg
Gomutra – 2 liter
Cow dung (Deshi) – 5 kg
 
Nimboli Ark :
It made up with the seeds of neem. Prepare the solution 3-5 days of before using. For the 5% neem ark follow the procedure:
 
Collect the seeds of neem in summer season.
 
1-2 lit gaumutra
200 chillis
150gm garlic
150gm tobacco
100 gm jaggary + costic soda
 
Method :
1. I st day :5kg neem powder + 100gm powder in 1 litre water after 24 hrs
2. II nd Day : At night drain it solution
3. In 1 litre costic soda water add water till the solution become 10 liter.
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